I'm fairly new to Canvas, and like others I've struggled with keeping things straight in my mind regarding how the various controls of course dates, term dates, and publish settings affect student access to a course. So I created this document as a way to quickly see how the various potential settings affect student access. Hopefully others will find it useful. Also, if you do find any errors or omissions please let me know so I can correct it.
EDIT on 8/10/16: I just made a change to the bottom in the "Notes" section to include the "Conclude this Course" feature.