"It is unfair (if common) to blame the longstanding LMS providers for the current limitations of their systems, as they were solving what was then the transactional task asked of them by universities: replicate the transaction of the traditional classroom in an LMS. Those transactions were the ones needed by faculty members to conduct their classes, things like taking and returning assignments, posting grades, sending messages, conducting classroom discussion, and sharing course materials. That generation of LMS providers did a great job and built systems around faculty needs and helped drive the enormous growth in online learning. However, we are now seeing a paradigmatic shift away from the faculty member/teaching focus that has long characterized higher education to a new student/learning focus. Whereas the LMS of the past encapsulated the whole of the instructor’s course and what was needed to conduct it, next generation systems holistically capture the student’s learning experience."