So we have only run into this once, but it was strange enough I figured I would reach out to see if others had seen it to get more information before submitting a Case about it.
Last night an Instructor reached out to my team about a page that had been published, was visible in his view, was visible in the "Student View" mode but wasn't available to actual students. When I dug into the issue, I verified all of what he was saying I also noticed that the "Make Page Available in Mastery Paths" box was checked. I unchecked the box and the problem seemed to persist for about 5 min. at which point the page was visible. I went back in and checked the box again to see if it would go away again, I impersonated a student and the page was still available, went to talk to someone and when I came back it was gone from that students view.
Other than being on a seemingly random delay it is repeatable, and incredibly frustrating. Because of the delay it feels like it is going into an error state of sorts, but I have no way to verify my theory.
The course is not employing Mastery Paths, but in my mind that box being check in and of itself should not work in the way it is.
I wasn't able to find any documentation confirming the functionality, so here I am. Any insight that anyone can offer would be great.