If you haven't already taken a look at the new Google LTI integration, it does a pretty good job at replacing a lot of the things below. So before you check out the below links, I'd recommend seeing if the integration will suit your/your instructor's needs better.
I get questions on how Canvas and Google work together all the time. So in order to help fulfill this need, I've decided to create this resource. I'm going to be creating this initial document with the idea that it will be reference page for all things google. If you have a use case for google that I don't include, please create a document of your own detailing the use, message me and I will include the link here. Let's work together to create a great resource on how to use Google in Canvas!