Problems between Google Drive and Canvas are not uncommon. Here are some other threads that may hold some troubleshooting answers:
This is about general Google Drive issues and some extensions that may be causing problems:
The problem seems to occur when you try to add a Google Doc file to your course files from a Google drive sync folder on your desktop. I suspect this is because Files doesn't have the workflow to convert the .gdoc file to a non Google docs format.
I found that I could successfully upload an Excel workbook from my synced Google drive, but a Google .gdoc file errors out. The solution, then, is to use the File > Download option in Google drive to save a non-Google version of the file for use in Canvas.