@joseph_allen & stacie.kintigh, have you seen or thought about using Dropout Detective for this type of thing? Dropout Detective integrates seamlessly into Canvas and would allow you to specify which people have access to certain students. In addition, they have a dashboard where the students could be quickly and easily monitored. The Dashboard shows the students in order from most at risk to least at risk (based on grades, missing assignments, etc) and if you click on the name of a student from the Dashboard you can then see each class the student is in and their current grade, missing assignments, last time the student submitted an assignment, and much more. In addition, there is a "notes" area for each student where everyone could collaborate to provide information and updates about the student(s) - this isn't visible to students or parents.
I'm going to tag @Chris_Munzo from Dropout Detective on this so he can provide more information.