Hello there, @ttucker34 ...
Happy New Year! It sounds like you'd like to create an image map using that nice graphic you've included with your question. Although I've not tested this out, I think this is still possible. The directions used to be included in this post: Image Mapping for a Homepage (aka Image with Multi... - Canvas Community, but that was from a few years ago. And, the Canvas Community website has now moved to a new platform...so the video that jnassif had originally posted in that thread doesn't appear to be available any more. Some other Canvas Community folks are trying to reach out to him to see if he can re-post that video (see bottom of the thread). But, there may still be links in his write-up that may be of help to you.
I would assume that for each course that you wanted to use this image in, you'd have to make new links that point to content only in that course...as each link would have a unique Course ID number that would not work if you linked to another course, for example. The same would hold true when you copy the course from semester to semester or term to term. The links would not automatically update when you copy/import content, so there would be some additional work on your end each time you wanted to use an image map like this in your course.
I hope this will help a bit. Please let Community members know if you have any other questions about this...thank you! Take care, stay safe, and be well.