Is there a way using the canvas equation (math) tool to type the problem all at once? I have to do one line at a time.

Another way to look at it is, I would like to open the math equation window type the first line and hit enter and do that for the whole problem. The problem is enter doesn't seem to work. Thoughts?

The equation editor uses LaTeX (through MathJax) so most of what is legal there is legal in the equation editor. That might help in future questions.

I think you're asking about the \\ (double backslash), which is the LaTeX way of saying newline. You'll need to switch to the advanced editor to do this.

You can also use the align environment to line up the equal signs

Or the array environment (I centered each block, but you could use l, r, or c).

There is also a cases environment