Our instructors are constantly asking for a way to enter grades without having to publish an assignment, for test scores or other offline activities. Sometimes they want the grades to be included in calculation, other times they just need entries for their reference. Even though an assignment can be muted right after publishing, there is still a notification sent to students about an assignment, which makes no sense in many cases, like test scores. The assignment name will also still appear in the gradebook, even when muted, which could also cause confusion in cases where instructors just want to add a column for their own use (e.g., participation, attendance). I don't know if this is best solved by allowing grade entry for unpublished assignments or by direct grade column creation in the Grades tool.