The course start and end date, as well as the override option should have a permission setting controlling access, much like other course settings.
I think this would need to be a new permission under course roles, because it really can't be combined with anything existing and have the granular functionality different institutions need.
This is especially important with the new functionality of the course end date box now in the BETA environment, where the date actually has a function, even if the override box isn't enabled. It's too easy for a faculty to mistakenly put a date there and end up causing all kinds of unintended problems.
For institutions/schools that want to allow faculty to set their own dates, they could continue to allow that with the permission. For institutions who would rather have term dates enforced, this would really help out!